Commercialization of the World Wide Web: The Role of Cookies

 

Introduction | What are Cookies? | Current Cookie Usage | Marketing Implications for Cookie Usage | Framework for Commercial Web Sites | Conclusion

 


 

 

                   

 

    Visit the

Owen Cookie Jar

This jar is the most extensive collection of cookies from any business school in the United States. See what sites have issued cookies to the 40 computers in the Owen Computer lab. Where do Owen students go on the web? Cookies tell all!

 


Introduction

The World Wide Web has the potential to become a powerful marketing tool. The web's interactive nature allows the marketer and the consumer to interact on a one-to-one basis. The cookie is a tool used on the web to facilitate and interpret this one-to-one interaction. Cookies offer the potential for more effective direct marketing of goods, services and information. Currently, the widest use of cookies occurs in the on-line advertising industry. Jupiter Communications 1996 Online Advertising notes that advertising should become the main revenue generator for companies with a commercial web presence. Web ad revenues in 1995 totaled $43 million. In 1996, ad revenues are right on target with expectations between $350 and $400 million, potentially becoming a $5 billion market by the year 2000. Many believe effective use of cookies is vital to the future success of on-line advertising.

This paper:

 

  1. Defines current cookie use
  2. Explores the current marketing implications of cookies
  3. Presents a framework to marketers for specific uses of cookies within six categories of commercial web sites
  4. Discusses potential development of cookies as marketing tools


What are Cookies?

A cookie is a small file stored on an individual's computer allowing a site to tag the browser with a unique identification. When a person visits a site, the site's server requests a unique ID from the person's browser. If this browser does not have an ID the server delivers one. This process is called "passing a cookie." On the Wintel platform, the cookie is delivered to a file called 'cookies.txt' and on a Macintosh platform, it is 'MagicCookie.' Cookies are similar to the Caller ID feature on phone systems. Just as someone can track the origin of a phone call, companies can use cookies to track information about user behavior. Cookies enable web sites to perform many functions that benefit end-users.

Netscape first "baked" cookies to extend the capabilities of web-based client/server applications. Netscape technically refers to the cookie programming device as Persistent Client State HTTP Cookies.

Cookies are significant because their utilization expands the flexibility of the Web. Cookies allow web administrators and marketers to build new web applications that are more responsive to individual customers.

, a leader in development of web advertising, lauds cookie use as necessary for the Internet's survival. The company understands that many Internet users dislike the commercial aspect of the Internet's development. However, "commercial support, in one way or another, is the only way to maintain free access to web sites......the use of cookies is a fact of life of the commercialization of the Internet."


Current Cookie Usage On the Internet

Search Engines

One of the major difficulties of using search engines is the voluminous amount of information generated from most key word searches. InfoSeek uses cookies to capture behavior information in order to provide more direct future searches. The idea is to inadvertently narrow Internet searches based on assumed criteria as dictated by the cookie.

Lycos uses cookies to tailor advertising to specific users. It customizes advertising banners based on the terms for which a particular user has historically searched on the Net. For example, if a user has frequently searched the Net for food recipes, the advertising banners for that user will likely be from Pizza Hut, McDonald's or some other restaurant.


Banner Advertising & DoubleClick

Currently, sophisticated cookie use prevents an individual from repeatedly being shown the same advertisement (banner). Kevin O'Conner, chairman and co-founder of DoubleClick, refers to this situation as "banner burnout." DoubleClick , another leader in the development of web advertising, uses cookies to track how many times an individual computer has been shown a particular banner advertisement.

If such an ad has been seen by the same user three times with no response, it is a good indication that the advertiser is wasting money at that particular location. This changing of ads is synonymous with a mail-order merchant who removes a customer from its list because she fails to order after a certain number of mailings. If technology can screen out unwanted ads, it may be considered a benefit to both the user and the merchant.

When advertisers register with DoubleClick, they create one or more target audience profiles. DoubleClick's automated system will then forecast the number of likely highly-targeted impressions available and the total costs for the ad campaign. The advertiser can also control the type of sites that are allowed to display its banner. The number of impressions can be controlled in order to prevent the advertiser from exceeding its budget. Costs are pro-rated for any advertising campaigns that end before DoubleClick can deliver the agreed number of impressions.

The company has a database of 70,000 Internet domain names that includes a line of business code for each name. This information can be used for direct advertising to the user based on a guess of the user's occupation. The company can determine the user's type of operating system from the browser program. Browser software communicates basic facts about a user's hardware and software configuration to web-site operators in order to make web pages appear on the screen.

When a user logs on to a DoubleClick client, the DoubleClick server assigns a one-time, unique ID number that is stored on the user's computer. For any future visits to that site or any other DoubleClick sites, the DoubleClick server retrieves the ID number and stores information about the visit. Gradually, the server compiles information about the user and his or her spending and computing habits, behavior, and interests. See exhibit below.







A user visits one of the
more than 60 sites in the
DoubleClick Network.
DoubleClick's proprietary technology dynamically matches advertiser's ad banner with appropriate target and displays to the user...all within 50 milliseconds.





The user sees the ad banner selected for her user profile and clicks on it for more information.


User ID's and Shopping Carts

When users return to a site for which their computer has already been given a cookie, their login information and previous shopping data are automatically matched up. They can then purchase additional items without having to re-enter their credit card number or shipping address. However, sites can only read cookies which are left on a particular computer. So users would have to re-enter information if accessing the same site from a different computer.

Besides storing user ID's, shopping carts use cookie technology to store what a user wishes to order at a site prior to finalizing a purchase. For example, if a user wishes to place some CD's in her shopping basket, a unique identifier is sent to the cookie file so that the user can browse other parts of the site without the server losing information on that user. When she is ready to check out, the server reads the cookie file and initiates a transaction based on what is in the shopping cart. Such usage of cookies is very helpful in a web-mall environment where several vendors may exist, but consumers only want to pay in one place at one time.


Marketing Implications for Cookie Usage

Cookie Benefits

The greatest positive implication of cookies for a marketer is the ability to enhance targeted marketing or one-to-one marketing. For example, assume on a user's last visit to the CNN site, she reads a few articles on crime in the United States. Each time an article is read with regards to a specific topic (e.g., crime), the cookie file is updated. Once this user returns, CNN has the ability to read the cookie file and see that she read these crime stories. CNN could then send her a customized, personal banner ad for home or car security. This personalization of a web site will allow advertisers to better target promotions to users. Furthermore, it allows advertisers to test which particular banner ad is more effective. offers this service using cookies to determine which version of a banner ad is more effective by tracking the click-through frequency of various versions.

Companies selling products over the Web will also be able to track purchase patterns of repeat customers and offer special promotions to them. For example, if a consumer continually looked for certain categories of books such as science fiction at Amazon Books, a cookie could be written that shows interest in science fiction. Each time this consumer returns to Amazon's home page, the retailer could immediately offer the person science fiction books at a discount to promote buying. Cross selling is also possible through suggestive selling of complementary products. If a consumer had a pair of slacks from LL Bean in her shopping cart and this shopping cart was written as a cookie file, LL Bean could read the cookie file and offer a complementary product such as a shirt or belt with a price discount. The implication and extent of cross selling is unlimited.

It is even possible that sites have mutual agreements to share their cookie files and the interpretation of these files, enabling marketers to better understand their customers. For example, by mixing the examples above, if a consumer reads a CNN article on crime and then later visits the Amazon site, the book company could automatically offer her discounted books on crime. Vice-versa, CNN could see what books she frequently searches for at Amazon, like crime, and customize its news stories so that crime-related stories are the most prevalent ones when she logs onto its site. There are certainly technical issues involved with these examples, particularly with establishing consistent categorization of consumers across both web sites and clear interpretation of each other's cookie files. However, if the synergies exist and the costs are relatively inexpensive, there is little to prevent such collaboration among web sites. The key benefit, obviously, is tailoring content to the user and ensuring that she will continue to return to the respective web sites.

Finally, cookies enable marketers to refine their web sites and make them more functional for users. For example, a web administrator can determine the average number of links a person uses to get to a particular page. If this particular page is popular and it takes an average of five or more clicks to get to it, the web administrator may place a link to this page earlier in the click-stream so that users can access it more quickly. The obvious implication is that users are more likely to return to the site if it is easier to use. The issue of a 'stateless' site is also eliminated. When surfing the web, users request web pages in a stateless fashion whereby the servers are unaware, unlike America Online, that you are still logged onto their site when viewing and reading a page. Essentially, each request for a web page at the same site is a different session with the server. Cookies enable a 'stateful' session where a unique ID code is written to that user's cookie file immediately when she logs on to the home page. Each time that subsequent pages at this web site are requested, the ID is read by the server which is able to track time spent on the web site or monitor a user's session. If an intermediary page is being viewed for only a few seconds, it may indicate that the page needs refining or improving so that users will spend more time viewing it.


Problems with Cookies

The most prevalent implication against using cookies is privacy. As Privacy Times editor Evan Hendricks states, "Cookies represent a coming effort by organizations to monitor people's interest in their products and services through the covert gathering of personal data without their knowledge and consent." Cookies represent a strong threat and potential backlash to marketers as they attempt to better understand their customers. For example, so-called "cookie chompers" are available on the market to thwart the use of cookies. Such programs as Cookie Monster 1.5, Internet Fast Forward by PrivNet, and NSClean32 enable filtering of cookies and/or automatic cleaning-up of cookie files so that a user cannot be consistently tracked.

Furthermore, new efforts are being made by public-interest organizations to protect privacy. The company eTrust identifies web sites that honor users' privacy using different levels of endorsement logos. A site that does not collect any information, for example, can license an eTrust logo for its home page to prominently display to users that it guarantees '100% user privacy'. To make matters more difficult for marketers, some sites such as the Anonymizer and NetAngels add a 'middle-man' between a user's computer and the web sites. These sites filter cookies but allow the user to easily navigate through web sites. Last June, Representative Edward J. Markey (D-MA) introduced a bill to Congress that would require the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission to study Internet information-gathering practices. He promised that regulation would possibly ensue if the market failed to provide tools and services to regulate itself.

DoubleClick claims that it is not interested in personal user information. Its primary business focus is frequency control for advertisers. CEO, Kevin O'Connor said, "I see the use of cookies as a three-way win. Advertisers know that their ad budget is well spent. Web sites get the money they need to survive. And users don't have to see the same ads over and over."

Browser issues must also be considered. Users of AOL and its proprietary browser cannot receive cookies, thereby preventing a marketer from collecting information on 7 million users. Furthermore, new versions of Netscape and Microsoft Explorer have options to turn off the capability to receive cookies. Therefore, if one deletes the cookie file or activates the option to prevent receiving cookies, very little information will ever be captured from the user. There is also some concern with inexpensive, network computers like WebTV. Such devices do not have 'write' capabilities or storage devices (e.g., hard drives) built in, thereby preventing the use of cookies. If these devices become popular among mainstream America, the use of cookies will be drastically limited and possibly eliminated as marketers search for new technology to track a significant portion of the Web.

Finally, there is limited functionality with cookies. Marketers may assume that the same individual is always using the same browser for Internet access. In an educational setting, however, several students may use the same computer with the same browser and the same cookie file. Such students may also use several different computers. Inherently, this is one of the greatest flaws with cookies. For the short-term, there is no alternative to solving this issue of multiple users for one cookie file. Potentially, marketers could become more creative and savvy using incentives to gather direct information from users.


Summary of Benefits and Problems

 

Cookie Benefits

Problems with Cookies

  • Targeted marketing
  • Track consumer purchase patterns
  • Customized promotions
  • Cross selling and promotions
  • Test banner advertising effectiveness
  • Consumer-tailored content
  • Synergies with other web sites
  • Collect and resell consumer data
  • Refine navigation and content of web site
  • Monitor consumer sessions on a web site
  • Privacy
  • "Cookie Chomping" software
  • Anonymous web sites
  • Browser issues
  • Network computer support that lacks read/write capabilities
  • Monitors browsers and not users
  • Cookies are a short-term solution


Framework for Commercial Web Sites

According to Hoffman, Novak, & Chatterjee's research, Commercial Scenarios for the Web: Opportunities and Challenges, there are six functional types of commercial web sites that help build a successful marketing strategy to promote electronic commerce:

 

  1. Online Storefront - CDNow or Security First Network Bank
  2. Internet Presence - FedEx or Budweiser
  3. Content - QuoteCom or HotWired
  4. Malls - CyberMart or eMall
  5. Incentive Sites - As the Web Turns
  6. Search Agents - Lycos or Yahoo!

Each of these six types are based on categories of what the site offers to the consumer and how she could benefit in interacting with the site. Within this context of interaction, we offer a framework for using cookies to further maximize the marketability and effectiveness of a site to enhance customer retention.

 

Online Storefront

Internet Presence

Content

  • Prevent banner ad burnout
  • Targeted ads on merchandise based on consumer purchase behavior
  • Cross selling products
  • Offer convenient, automatic user logins
  • Enable shopping carts
  • Refine navigation and content of web site
  • Monitor consumer sessions
  • Explore synergies with other web sites
  • Collect and resell consumer data (optional)
  • Prevent banner ad burnout
  • Refine navigation and content of web site
  • Monitor consumer sessions
  • Prevent banner ad burnout
  • Targeted ads on merchandise based on consumer purchase behavior
  • Offer convenient, automatic user logins
  • Refine navigation and content of web site
  • Monitor consumer sessions
  • Explore synergies with other web sites
  • Collect and resell consumer data (optional)


 

Mall

Incentive Sites

Search Agents

  • Prevent banner ad burnout
  • Targeted ads on merchandise based on consumer purchase behavior
  • Cross selling products
  • Offer convenient, automatic user logins
  • Enable shopping carts
  • Refine navigation and content of web site
  • Monitor consumer sessions
  • Explore synergies with other web sites
  • Collect and resell consumer data (optional)
  • Prevent banner ad burnout
  • Refine navigation and content of web site
  • Monitor consumer sessions
  • Refine navigation and content of web site
  • Monitor consumer sessions
  • Prevent banner ad burnout
  • Targeted ads on merchandise or services based on consumer search behavior
  • Refine navigation and content of web site (e.g., help refine searches for end-users)
  • Monitor consumer sessions

 

 


On-Line Storefront

In this type of web site, consumers are primarily seeking to purchase some good or service or simply experimenting with the site to judge its merit before purchasing. The major issues for such a site are promoting transactions and ensuring that consumers return to the site. Examples of this type include CD Now or Security First Network Bank. An ideal framework for using cookies in this type of web site includes preventing ad burnout, targeted selling, and custom web pages based on past purchase behavior. Also, cookies can be used for automatic, convenient user logins keeping the user from having to re-enter shipping and billing information and shopping carts that enable the user to browse the site before purchasing.

Further cookie use could be in refining navigation and content of a web site by monitoring user sessions and explore synergies with other web sites. Regarding collection and reselling of consumer data, the web site companies must be very cautious. Often consumers feel 'burned' by direct marketing because they assume that their names, addresses, and interests are private. If consumers discover that some on-line storefront sites sell data, such sites may undergo severe scrutiny, possibly resulting in significant loss of sales and customers.


Internet Presence

In this type of web site, organizations have different degrees of presence on the Internet for the sake of product support and promotion. Examples of such sites are Apple Computer, FedEx Corporation, and Budweiser. Their purpose is to simply have a presence to service customers more effectively and to promote products, without directly selling products. The ideal use of cookies is to prevent banner ad burnout, refine navigation and content of the web site, and monitor consumer sessions. Often such sites are very basic and offer very little for electronic commerce, other than promoting brand loyalty and equity. Other sites, such as Apple Computer and FedEx Corporation, offer more than information such as products and service support. Usage of cookies is very limited since consumers do not engage in some form of searching or purchasing of products or services. The best way to gather consumer information such as interests and behavior is to promote participation in on-line surveys through incentives.


Content

In a content-based web site, content or information is requested by consumers for a fee. Examples include Quote.com and Wall Street Journal, sponsored content like HotWired or BusinessWeek, and searchable databases like CareerMosaic. The key to understanding this type of web site is that information is dynamic and attractive to the end-user, resulting in repeat visits. Usage of cookies is a 'paired-down' version of the On-Line Storefront because information is not 'pushed' to the consumer. Instead, the consumer seeks or 'pulls' information either through simple browsing or a need to achieve some goal.

Primary usage of cookies to enrich the site and its information include preventing banner ad burnout, targeted advertisements, particularly if a user's interests are known through behavior or survey information, convenient and automatic user logins for those sites requiring it, refine navigation and content of the web site to better 'serve-up' the information, and monitor consumer sessions. Such sites should also explore sharing information and synergies with other sites. For example, Quote.com could share information with the Wall Street Journal and vice-versa. Finally, for such sites that maintain solid user information, particularly fee-based sites, marketers should cautiously explore the possibilities of collecting and reselling user data.


Mall

This type of commercial web site is similar to the on-line storefront, except that several retailers and service providers participate. These sites require extensive use of cookies. However, unlike the single vendor on-line storefronts, there is a greater possibility of cross selling and promotion, particularly among the variety of vendors in the 'common' mall. Examples of this type of site include CyberMart and eMall. See the above On-Line Storefront for a full description of cookie usage.


Incentive Sites

These sites do not offer products or services when a user first arrives. The goal of such a site is to 'pull' the user through some attractive content or information. Eventually, the site reveals its commercial interests in the hope of soliciting some level of purchase after presenting its information. Essentially consumers are not initially aware of the site's goals or objectives. For example, As The Web Turns is an Internet soap opera written by a public relations and writing firm.

Similar to the Internet Presence site, there are limited options for using cookies (i.e., the company maintains a presence on the Internet and uses incentives to lure consumers to visit them). No products or services are sold on the site. Assuming the company runs banner ads, cookies can be used to prevent burnout. The primary use of cookies, however, will be the refinement of navigation and content of the site in order to better serve users.


Search Agents

With these sites, advertising is the primary revenue source. Therefore, it is imperative that advertisements are effectively shown to users. The primary use of cookies in this environment is to prevent banner ad burnout. However, most banner ads are automatically customized and delivered to specific keyword searches. For example, if a user searches for 'apartments' on Yahoo!, she receives a listing of apartment information along with a large banner ad for Rent.net. Some other search agent sites, such as Lycos, broadcast banner ads and need cookies to prevent ad burnout.

Besides advertising, cookies can be used to refine searches and aid users in their quest to find specific information. As previously mentioned, InfoSeek uses cookies to help its users in future searches. Finally, cookies can be used to refine the content of the web site and monitor user sessions in order to better serve the user so that she will consider the search agent a useful source for finding information.


Conclusion

Ramifications of Cookies

On the surface, the cookie concept is not a considerable revolution in monitoring and tracking consumer behavior and interests. Off the Internet, similar devices to cookies are used in our everyday lives. Caller ID, for example, is widely used in the United States for systems that can recall a customer's name, address, account information, order history, credit reports, etc. Supposedly, the Pizza Hut Corporation implemented a computer order system that can identify a caller and last order but the company still asks customers their phone numbers instead of saying "Hi David, would you like the veggie with no mushrooms again?" -- because they are afraid of scaring customers by letting on that they already know (Malcolm's Guide to Persistent Cookies).

Furthermore, traces the origins of the cookie back to catalogs that originally developed the concept of 'catalog reference numbers' to aid in better serving customers. In the traditional (print) world, it is widely accepted that catalog companies keep records of the products customers have bought in the past - sizes, colors, etc. - to better assist them in making future purchases. Such catalogs also frequently resell their information to direct marketers.

However, the cookie is more elusive and daunting than Caller ID or catalog reference numbers. The cookie rests on a consumer's computer in a computer mediated environment. The potential exists for the computer as a powerful computational and relational tool to be used to retrieve information about someone who is visiting a site or to begin building a pattern of usage and behavior on that person (Malcolm's Guide to Persistent Cookies).

If a user registers her name and address at a site, all future activity at that site could be linked to the user. That information could then be sold to others, such as consumer marketing organizations. For example, one Netscape user complained on-line that he felt like he had been "electronically tagged like an animal."

Such a statement leads into the suggestion that there is a 'dark side' to using cookies. A web site operator could design a cookie that would review a user's hard drive, in search of something that resembled a social security number or bank account number. It would only take a few well-publicized incidents like this to make Internet users leery of all on-line advertising and the usage of cookies.

Furthermore, private information is sometimes not stored safely on cookies. For example, the New York Times uses cookies so users do not have to enter a name and password every time they log on to the web site. Until this month, both the user name and password are maintained in the cookie file in plain text (it is now encrypted). For services that are free, this situation is not such a big deal. However, for sites that charge for services, the lack of security could prevent a user from visiting the site because of the potential for erroneous charges resulting from someone else using the user's password (Are Web-based cookies a treat or a recipe for trouble?" Eamonn Sullivan, PC Week, June 24, 1996 v13 n25 p75).

Some industry writers say the biggest problem a user will likely encounter is increased junk mail (both real and electronic). They add, "The bottom line on all of this is to be aware. You don't have to be any more worried on the Web than in other places, you just need to be informed." ("Web Security and the Cookie Controversy." Mark L. Van Name and Bill Catchings, PC Week, July 29, 1996 v13 n30 pN6.) Besides, users are very much in control of their cookies with the options to turn them off or delete them.


Future Cookie Usage on the Internet

As one periodical has predicted, "Individual pages will be matched to individual interests with a precision not seen before. And the result may be unnerving, as marketers start using the Net as an instrument to peer not just into the habits but into even the thought processes of individual computer users." This source also expected the major change in electronic commerce to be driven by the successors to the cookie technology. Such changes are being incorporated into web servers, tools and databases. The new systems are expected to collect a wider range of information such as sequence of pages and sites visited including time spent at each page. Such information will be stored in databases, and marketers will tap into this vast database for consumer information.

As a user signs on in the future, information from the database will be retrieved to target specific information about the individual. Larry Footer, Chief Executive Officer of Consortium LLC, a New York-based Internet software developer, said, "Selling on the Internet no longer will be based on demographics. It's all psychographics. You want to know what a consumer is thinking." He also said that small merchants will use existing data to determine whether to offer premium or discount items to particular on-line customers.

The Chief Executive Officer of the on-line bookseller, Amazon Books, Jeff Bezos, predicts that Web retailing will never replace traditional retail shopping, but consumers may be inclined to shop on-line if more companies offered personalized services. He said, "the potential is there to completely redecorate your storefront for every customer that comes to your site."

However one industry manager predicts that technology is not the key to on-line merchant success. Satya Nadella, lead product manager for electronic commerce at Microsoft, says the real determinant will be how well a company manages its customer database.


Final Thoughts

In our attempt to explain cookies and their usage, the purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the potential for cookie technology, particularly when relationship marketing seems to be the 'golden fleece' to success on the Internet. However, we must caution that implementing an ideal database management system using cookies is a tremendous undertaking, both in labor and in cost. Mr. Bezos estimates that the internal development of a satisfactory personalization system could cost several million dollars. Nevertheless, he considers the development of this technology to be necessary for long-term survival. Furthermore, customized content may not be completely viable until the technology becomes more accessible and is easier to implement.

Finally, there is the consumer privacy issue. This area is highly volatile and could severely hamper marketers if there is widespread misuse of cookies using consumer information. As something sensationalistic and unfamiliar to the media and general public as the Internet, one severe episode of misuse could severely hamper marketers in their future efforts to gather marketing information from consumers, particularly if it prompts government legislation.

 

Beginning of Paper | Project 2000


Owen Graduate School of Management Cookie Jar

 


        The Owen Graduate School of Management Cookie Jar is a collection of over 150 web sites that have issued cookies to 40+ computers in the lab, used by over 400 students. This information was collected on December 12, 1996 by recording the cookie files from all the Wintel and Macintosh computers in the lab.

The purpose of showing this information is to illustrate the prevalence of cookies. To further understand the extensive use of cookies, we encourage you to turn your cookies off in your browser then begin surfing these sites. For Netscape 3.0 users, select "Options", "Network Preferences", then "Protocols." Check the box that says "Show an Alert Before: Accepting a Cookie."

You will quickly see how often cookies are used!

Beginning of Paper | Project 2000

www.2gz.com
www.3com.com
www.abc.com
www.acacia.org
www.ad-up.com
www.adobe.com
www.agtnet.com
www.amazon.com
www.amicrawler.com
www.arcadium.com
www.atlanta.olympic.org
www.bareskin.com
www.bellcore.com
www.bigbook.com
www.bmgt.umd.edu
www.boston.com
www.burstnet.com
www.campbellsoups.com
www.canit.se
www.carpoint.msn.com
www.casinomagic.com
www.cdnow.com
www.cduniverse.com
www.citysearch.com
www.cobragolf.com
www.columbia.net
www.companylink.com
www.concerts.calender.com
www.coolclub.com
www.cstore.ucf.edu
www.cyberatlas.com
www.dbc.com
www.disney.com
www.doubleclick.net
www.download.com
www.dream.com
www.dreamleague.com
www.elibrary.com
www.ellisisland.org
www.epita.fr
www.espnet.com
www.excite.com
www.fashionmall.com
www.fedex.com
www.ffly.com
www.film.com
www.firefly.com
www.flanderscorp.com
www.fleet.com

www.forbes.com
www.four11.com
www.foxhome.com
www.frishberg.com
www.fun.com
www.fxweb.com
www.galt.com
www.gii-awards.com

www.golfweb.com
www.GoWest.com
www.greatxxx.com
www.greetingcard.com
www.harmony-central.com
www.hotbot.com
www.hotwired.com
www.hungary.com
www.illuminatus.com
www.imall.com
www.imdb.com

www.imperative.com
www.infoseek.com
www.internet.net
www.io.com
www.ipro.com
 
www.iworld.com
www.jpl.nasa.gov
www.latimes.com
www.levi.com
www.lgeenergy.com
www.looksmart.com
www.lysator.liu.se
www.mcom.com
www.merck.com
www.microsoft.com
www.mike.com
www.minds.com
www.minotel.com
www.mountnet.com
www.movielink.com
www.movies.com
www.msn.com
www.msnbc.com
www.Nashville.net
www.nba.com
www.nemba.org
www.net.hu
www.netacc.net
www.netscape.com
www.newtonline.com
www.nurol.com
www.nytimes.com
www.ora.com
www.pacbell.com
www.paramount.com
www.pennzoil.com
www.phillips.com
www.ppg.com
www.pyramidbrew.com
www.qualcomm.com
www.realaudio.com
www.realmedia.com
www.rollcall.com
www.russiatoday.com
www.sap.com
www.search.com
www.sfnb.com
www.sports.ladbrokes.co.uk
www.sportszone.com
www.statszone.com
www.sun.com
www.tagesschau.de
www.talkcity.com
www.techweb.com
www.theautochannel.com
www.theglobeandmail.com
www.things.com
www.tig.com
www.timecast.com
www.touri.de
www.toyota.com
www.travelchannel.com
www.tripod.com
www.tscn.com
www.twentieth-century.com
www.usatoday.com
www.usnews.com
www.uvision.com
www.wal-mart.com
www.wcco.com
www.webcrawler.com
www.webpromote.com
www.whowhere.com
www.wired.com
www.wolsi.com
www.worldtraveler.com
www.wsj.com
www.xmission.com
www.yahoo.com
www.ypn.com
 

Beginning of Paper | Project 2000

December 18, 1996
Group 5